Design, Heritage and Pedigree

RS 7 + SR in love small

Here’s to another Fab Member of the RrrrrrrrrrrrSssssssssss Family: Audi RS 7 Sportback

What is in a number? Read this one: 560 hp. Very impressive. 4.0 litre V8 TFSI engine. Sounds good. It is actually the same engine as in the latest RS 6 Avant, that premiered a few months earlier (see post “The Lord of the Rings” from May). But what an altogether different car the RS 7 Sportback is. In shape and feel.

Magic letters that make driving bliss.

Magic letters that make driving bliss.

And yet V8 means downsizing, an irrevocable trend it seems. The predecessor in the former RS 6 Avant was a V10 engine with a plus of 20 horsepower,  however less maximum torque. Not to mention the thunderous power of V12 engines, typically in Ferraris or Lamborghinis, also in the Aston Martin Vantage and DB9 Volante, the Mercedes-Benz 600 SL and other models from Stuttgart of years gone by, the Jaguar XJS, the BMW 750i, 750Li and quite a number of other cars designed for the street. But in all fairness, it has to be said: What the engineers have managed to wring out of this V8 is simply mind-boggling.

Added to which the two letters “RS” are the decisive factor denoting dynamism if not dynamite. They are a promise that this is Audi at its best. Where the “S” factor is already pretty awe inspiring, “RS” simply takes one’s breath away.

Spirits of Ancient Engines…

Let’s face it: Engines with an impressive number of cylinders obviously have become a thing of the past, ousted by an increasing number of limitations imposed on the car

V 10 engines: Pieces of evidence of a glorious past.

V 10 engines: Pieces of evidence of a glorious past.

industry worldwide. They are no longer deemed politically correct, soon to be carefully mothballed like Egyptian mummies, and thus preserved for posterity. In decades to come, people will marvel at these wonders of technology from days of yore. Mind you, one of my neighbours has one of those wicked 12 cylinder pickups, with a brutish booming roar. A great sound indeed, unless it explodes into the peace and quiet of the very early morning hours, which, alas, it frequently does. It certainly makes the other neighbour’s V6 Chrysler pickup sound pathetic, almost ethereally electric. Well, not quite. Views are divided over large SUVs, which is why the car industry is in the process of shrinking them. The Audi Q3 is one such example. The entire Volkswagen Group is pursuing this course of cutting down on size. In the case of Volkswagen this is facilitated on account of its recently established MQB system (Modularer Querbaukasten), a modular toolkit strategy for its transverse, front-engined, front-wheel drive automobiles: Audi set out with the Q7, followed by the Q5, followed by the Q3. VW does it, even Porsche does it (from Porsche Cayenne to Porsche Macan which is soon to debut). The VW Taigun as baby Tiguan may soon be on its way. The first and biggest VW SUV, the Tuareg and counterpart to the Porsche Cayenne, once considered absolutely hip, seems to have become mega out within a couple of years. The new motto: The smaller the hipper. SUVs of a sizable size therefore might soon belong to an endangered species, especially in politically hypercorrect Germany. Just as fur coats and their wearers were maligned and fell pray to the attacks of sprayers in former years, the new scapegoats might well be SUVs and other premium cars. Once loved dearly and hyped as status symbols, they now run the risk of being scratched or set on fire, their drivers denounced as a threat to the environment. Little do these dimwits know that A, B or C segment cars are profitting from the cutting edge technology first developed for premium cars. My late friend Dorothy, MBE, who married a German just before war broke out, summed it up adequately: “You Germans, you overdo it both ways.”

Even Formula 1 has been cut down to eight cylinders and it does not stop here. Next year motorsports aficionados will witness the return of turbo engines to what is arguably the epitome of motor racing, with engines powered by no more than six cylinders. “Ludicrous”, you may well say. The fact is that the difference to street cars continues to decrease. Or to put it differently: Formula 1 is getting forever closer in becoming a laboratory for future passenger cars and therefore has a convincing raison d’être. This is also why a  totally electric Formula 1 is likely, although it is difficult to see what joy this is to bring to spectators. It will have nothing in common with proper Formula 1, where sound and vibrations are imperative.

More cylinders than in the F1 race cars as from 2012 – even though only on demand.

More cylinders than in F1 as from 2014 – even though only on demand.

Compared to Formula 1 Audi and other OEMs manufacturing premium cars are courageous. They try to satisfy public demand for performance, and do so by means of ever increasing efficient performance. Coming back to the RS 7 Sportback, as in the case of the RS 6 Avant, not only does the engine have a total of eight instead of ten cylinders, these engines have what is called “cylinder on demand” (COD).

COD means that  you are placidly cruising along or driving in town with only four cylinders doing the work. At low to moderate load and engine speed, the system deactivates cylinders two, three, five and eight by closing their valves and shutting off the fuel injection. The 4.0 TFSI runs as a four-cylinder engine in this mode – until one presses firmly down on the gas pedal. The operating points in the active cylinders are displaced toward higher loads, increasing efficiency and simultaneously reducing consumption in the NEDC (New European Driving Circle) by around ten percent. The good thing about this is the average driver with a sporty ambition will not notice any difference in handling. The same cannot be said for a lot of cars.

Apart from COD the engineers at Audi are specifically proud pointing out another innovation, which shows that losing weight is a top priority for cars nowadays. Less weight means less fuel consumption and increased driving dynamics. The process of losing

Weight saving via clever shape: Front brake with wave brake disc.

Weight saving via clever shape: Front brake with wave brake disc.

weight concerns the whole body of the car as well as any separate item that can conceivably be further improved. Besides using a clever mix of materials – the RS 7 consists of a hybrid aluminum design making it weigh roughly 15 percent less than a comparable all-steel body –, a lot also depends on finding the optimum shape. As in the case of brake discs. The RS 7 Sportback features a wave design that does not only look interesting, the internally vented brake discs result in a sizable reduction of almost three kilograms (6.61 lb). Ceramic discs are optional amounting to an astounding minus ten kilograms in weight. As expected from Audi, there is also a sporty note to the brakes: The electronic stabilization control system (ESC) has a Sport mode that can be deactivated altogether. These weight saving wave brake discs are also standard on the RS 6 Avant.

The third outstanding technical feature that the RS 7 Sportback boasts is the eight-speed tiptronic gearbox as standard which has been specially matched to the sporty character of the car. It allows you to choose between D and S modes or change gears yourself. While the lower gears of the tiptronic are closely spaced for sporty response, the eighth gear is tall to reduce fuel consumption.

The marvels of hightech as state of the art.

The marvels of hightech as state of the art.

What Power. What Elegance. What Class.

The basic technical data about the Audi RS 7 Sportback are swiftly told: 4.0 liter biturbo V8; 560 hp/412 kW; maximum torque: 700 Nm at 1,750 to 5,500 rpm; official top speed: 305 km/h (189.52 mph); sprint from 0 to 100 km/h (62.14 mph) in 3.9 seconds; average of 9.8 litres of fuel consumption per 100 km; eight speed tiptronic transmission; tank capacitiy: 65 litres; net weight: 1,985 kg; size of boot: 535 to 1,390 litres. The car will arrive in the showrooms in the fourth quarter of the year, at a base price of € 113,000.

Sculpturesque beauty. Dynamic elegance at its best.

Sculpturesque beauty. Dynamic elegance at its best.

There is no doubt about it. Car manufacturers generally build good cars nowadays. And the bare facts and figures about the RS 7 certainly convey an impression of power. But what are the ingredients of a truly fascinating car, a car that is both thrilling to drive and to look at?  Such a car must definitely have an appealing design, outrageous speed, convincing torque, utmost precision in everything and unfailing attention to detail.

A Stroke of Genius & Homage to Yesterday

Not only is the driving experience bliss. Just looking at this car as it stands firmly poised on the ground is thrilling. So why on earth did it take Audi so long to come out with such a wonderful car? After all the A7 made its debut as late as 2010, followed by the S7 in 2012. And finally, the RS 7 Sportback proudly presented itself to the world during the Detroit Auto Show at the beginning of this year. The Audi designers were surely inspired not only by trends in architecture and fashion, but most of all by the car manufacturer’s impressive pedigree.

With hindsight ... The RS7 pedigree: Audi 100 Coupé. Some call it the most beautiful Audi of all times.

With hindsight … The RS 7 pedigree: Audi 100 Coupé. Some call it the most beautiful Audi of all times.

This car certainly has its own outstanding identity. A personality that sets it apart and yet harks back to another icon of style, the Audi 100 Coupé S. The latter was produced forty years ago, from 1970 to 1976, and is a typical creation of the 1970ies. It did not yet have quattro, because development of the phenomenally successful all-wheel drive à la Audi started in 1977, that is 46 years ago. It premiered in the famous Audi quattro. And like so many other innovations and masterpieces of hightech, it is inextricably linked to one name, that of Ferdinand Piëch.

Only three years after the premier of the Audi quattro in 1980, the quattro GmbH was founded. From the outset, the one hundred percent Audi subsidiary has been dedicated towards premium quality. What started with exquisite leather in 1983 for high-quality interior of Audi cars developed into a workshop for the car manufacturer’s top models. All RS models are consequently produced in the home of quattro GmbH, Neckarsulm near Stuttgart in Baden-Württemberg.

Loss of Weight, Expansion of Waistline

911 2.0 Coupé from 1964 and the present 911 Carrera 4S Coupé.

911 2.0 Coupé from 1964 and the present 911 Carrera 4S Coupé.

The evolutionary process of the epitome of an iconic sportscar, the immortal and forever nimble sportsman 911, best demonstrates how over the years the waistline of cars has never stopped expanding . In fact, the overall size of the 911 has been growing from one model to the next. The Porsche Musuem in Zuffenhausen (Stuttgart) has a section showing the silhouettes of all Porsche cars as lines. These silhouettes delineate both the careful evolution of the legendary sportscar and its increasing dimensions, from the very first Porsche 901, later to be called 911, to the present 997 half a century later. So even if cars have started to battle extra weight, their proportions have grown. Just as man is growing and growing in size.

Nonsensical message. Both genders, male and female have since its birth been indiscriminately been dreaming of the 911.

Nonsensical message. Since its birth both genders, male and female, have indiscriminately been dreaming of the 911.

Porsche may call the present Porsche (internally called 997 and in its seventh generation) masculine or muscular. The fact remains that the very first slim 911 models look daintily nimble and feature an aura of dignity and grace that marketing people might call feminine. Maybe that is behind all this nonsense about Porsche being a man’s car. As seen in one of the latest postcard campaigns on account of the 50 years jubilee (see above).

Dancing cheek to cheek - Porsche 911 2.0 Coupé & Porsche 911 Carrera 4S Coupé.

Dancing cheek to cheek:
Porsche 911 2.0 Coupé & Porsche 911 Carrera 4S Coupé.

Masculine, feminine, bullish, graceful and slender – design follows a certain Zeitgeist. At the same time it has to make allowances for and is constrained by so many functions and technical demands that progressive growth in dimensions is almost inevitable.

Apart from life saving safety features cars are nowadays packed with space devouring hightech, most of all premium cars. The inner life of a car body is intricate and most complex. Right from the outset, designers work hand in hand with the engineers in their opposing quests for millimetres on the one hand and artistic freedom on the other.

Hence there are solid reasons behind the expanding dimensions of current car bodies, namely technological progress and relentless drive for luxuries such as a state of the art multi-media interior and an all consuming focus on maximum safety.

... and back to back: Audi 100 Coupé S and A7.

… and back to back: Audi 100 Coupé S and A7.

So what are the inner values of the RS 7? Audi has been renowned for its immaculate interiors. No squeaky dashboards, meticulously exact gap dimensions inside and outside. High-quality interior décor. The sport seats in the RS 7 are another definite highlight. They are extremely comfortable and with their superbly stitched leather they are a captivating sculpture themselves.

The RS 7 is remarkably spaceous. Even in the back there is ample space. In a word: This five-door supercar is a classy sculpture on very fast wheels. Not quite as sleek and slender as its relative of the 1970ies, but yields a posture of a dynamic elegance which stands alone.

Sleek and slender: Audi 100 Coupé S.

Sleek and slender: Audi 100 Coupé S.

The long engine hood, the 2.92 meter (9.58 ft) wheelbase and the short overhangs create a sculpture with powerfully harmonious proportions. With its low, flowing roof line, the 5.01 meter (16.44 ft) RS 7 Sportback is striking from any angle.

It is a superb statement of design, a paragon of dynamics and technical perfection. That such perfection does not go unnoticed is hardly surprising. Only a few weeks ago Audi AG was awarded the J.D. Power Plant Assembly Line Quality Award for producing models that yield the fewest defects or malfunctions.

Epicentre of quattro and Best Production Site in Europe

The Audi production site in Neckarsulm has received the internationally esteemed J.D. Power Award in gold for being best in class in Europe and Africa. Neckarsulm is the plant with the highest diversity of Audi models produced. It is where all the top line premium cars are built and is the home of customer racing. The simple reason being that quattro GmbH is located right in the midst of the factory with its comprehensive technical know-how and expertise. This generates maximum synergy and efficiency.

quattro GmbH is also the place where every conceivable cliental wish is granted for an individualised car.

Best in Europe – Production Site in Neckarsulm. Here: A 6 assembly line.

Best in Europe – Production Site in Neckarsulm. Here: A 6 assembly line.

And with 30 years of quattro GmbH, this is an anniversary that could not possibly pass without setting another record. With four new RS models this year alone, a total of eight RS models is now produced in Neckarsulm.This year will have seen the introduction of the RS Q3, the first RS model in the SUV segment, the third generation of the RS 6 Avant, the RS 7 Sportback and the RS 5 Cabriolet. The other four models are the RS 4 Avant, the RS 5 Coupé, plus the TT RS Coupé and Roadster. And of course, quattro GmbH is also where the R 8 is manufactured.

In Neckarsulm we were among the first to be honoured with a guided a tour of quattro GmbH, the Fort Knox of Audi. It is at a certain point – Audi calls it “Zählpunkt 6″, because all the various production phases are numbered – in the Audi production site that all the RS models are removed from that production process and taken to the quattro workshop, where they are enhanced and emerge as the very highend RS models that set them apart from their next of kin more or less conspicuously. Out of the 800 Audi people working for quattro GmbH, 22 at present work in production. There is a maximum capacity for 40 “Audians” in the present layout of the workshop.

Let's hit the road, yessssssssss

Let’s hit the road, yessssssssss

Thank you Audi for having filled the gap with the A7 and most of all, producing it in the inimitable RS version. Mission most successfully completed. Without a shadow of a doubt, we, too,  have selected this late arrival to the Audi family as worthy of prizes in all categories of design, power and meticulous craftsmanship.

This is a car in which we felt at ease instantly and with which we have started a flirtatious love affair. It gives you wings, makes you fly – even at 230 km/h and more, the car is easy and pleasant to drive. It feels like cruising mode, whereas it is easy to feel uncomfortable at 120 km/h in quite a number of cars, some of which had best be restricted to traffic in towns. All one needs to do in the RS 7 is heed the other motorists in front and beside oneself.

Icon of Pop meets Car Icon

50 years later: Still going strong. Where will Audi be in another 50 years? All electric? At present certainly not.

50 years later: Still going strong. Where will Audi be in another 50 years? All electric? At present certainly not.

Time for some music. Lead singer: Nobody less than PaulMcCartney:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wjCt0sI-cFA

So here we are, moving to the tune of a new car age. And here is to this fabulous car, the RS 7 Sportback –  the dawning of great design, steeped in tradition:

I’m Your Baby — Do You Love Me?
I Can Drive A Cadillac
Across The Irish Sea
But When I’ve Finished Doing That
I Know Where I’ll Want To Be
‘Cos I’m Your Baby, And You Love Me.

Spirits Of Ancient Egypt
Spirits Of Ancient Egypt
Spirits Of Audi ONE-O-O
Spirits Of Audi ONE-O-O.

A Car with which I instantly fell in love. The shape, the speed, the sheer presence of the Audi RS7 Sportback. Quite simply a work of art and a masterpiece at that.

The Car with which I instantly fell in love. The shape, the speed, the sheer presence of the Audi RS 7 Sportback. Quite simply a work of art and a masterpiece at that.

Summary / Zusammenfassung

Der RS 7 Sportback ist ein superber Wurf der Audi Ingenieure und Designer. Eine Skulptur auf Rädern aus einem Guss. Besonders in Daytonagrau Matteffekt hat es uns die Sportlimousine angetan. Dieses Auto ist von Anbeginn eine Stilikone, die schon jetzt ihren Platz im Museum of Modern Art in Washington verdient hat.

Warum die Ingolstädter so lange mit dem A7 gewartet haben? Geniales Design braucht den zündenden Funken.

Susanne Roeder

©roe

 

PS: And for those who criticise this blog for length, why not join this lively discussion started by Brian Driggs on LinkedIn: Who does the deep, long tail automotive journalism these days?

http://www.linkedin.com/groupAnswers?viewQuestionAndAnswers=&discussionID=260209991&gid=85806&commentID=153724772&trk=view_disc&fromEmail=&ut=33zQBWedXCMRQ1

But I have to admit, I got somewhat carried away with the subject.

PPS from 21st August 2013:

And as an addition to Audi Design and engine power: At last they have unveiled the long awaited made over flagship, the new Audi A8 and S8, today, 21st August 2013. Which begs the question: Will an Audi RS 8 be in the making? There are no such plans, as we were told. However, should enough aficionados be determined to hand out the necessary euros …. who knows. But see for yourselves:

Less than 32 Bath Tubs per Car & and Going Electric?

Waste not, want not. Efficiency is the Car Industry's Watchword.

Waste not, want not. Efficiency is the Car Industry’s Watchword.

Efficiency and Sustainability seemingly unlimited

In the Western World we take for granted having a bath or taking a shower. We hardly think of efficiency or sustainability while doing so. Not so the Car Industry. Thus we hear from Volkswagen that 32 bath tubs per car produced are too many. Efficiency, sustainability, ecology are three big words of which the car manufacturers have become acutely aware, not least because of ever more stringent regulations from Brussels. The Volkswagen Group and VW pride themselves in “thinking blue”. The company claims that sustainability has become firmly entrenched in its statutes. By 2018 the Volkswagen Group aims to replace Toyota as the World’s number one car manufacturer, at least this is what CEO Martin Winterkorn proclaims. The programme is called “Mach 18 Factory”, “Mach 18″ being the overall watchword – meaning something like “make it to being Number 1 worldwide by 2018!”

On the way from Number One in Europe to becoming Number One in the world, Volkswagen assesses its Think Blue Factory as one in which the “bath tubs per car” have to be significantly reduced, using as little water as possible, and as one in which remnants from the pressing plant are used for other components. Volkswagen considers environmental topics as paramount in the production process and announces a further reduction in the waste of resources of 25 per cent by 2018.

Truly a Survival of the Fittest?

Regarding the type of engine, combustion has been, still is and will remain to be the most successful solution for cars. However, the European Comission in Brussels keeps installing new regulations, especially as regards levels of CO2 emissions. So, national governments in Europe pump money into other systems keeping them artificially alive, just to meet the unrealistic environmental targets. Accordingly, the German government and Chancellor Angela Merkel have just announced further substantial unreasonable subventions for e-mobility. Can one not stop flogging a partially dead horse and rather invest in cars powered by the ever-improving combustion engine?

Déjà vu: Electricity lost out on the combustion engine. The massive Lohner-Porsche Electromobile from 1900.

Déjà vu: Electricity lost out on the combustion engine. The massive Lohner-Porsche Electromobile from 1900.

Whereas according to Darwinian survival of the fittest, the combustion engine would easily survive for many decades to come and further improve its CO2 emissions, it might well become an endangered species on account of Brussels’ and Germany’s interventionism. The e-hype of these past years is quite unbelievable. While new technologies need the passion and support of all engineers and financiers involved, there is a limit when it comes to probabilities and cost-benefit analyses. It has been shown that neither the well to wheel analysis nor return on investment calculations for purely electric cars makes any sense. And why not invest this money in hydrogen cars that emit nothing but water, can cover the same distances as combustion engines and take as little time to refill? One cannot help thinking of haphazard decisions taken at random. As a matter of fact, these decisions are the result of guesswork. Firstly, General Elections in Germany are looming, generating varied lobbying and irrational promises. Secondly, the German car industry with its focus on premium cars needs to sell enough e-cars to meet the severe CO2 limits that by 2020 allow no more than an average emission per new car of 95 gram of  CO2 per kilometer. This is achieved by means of super credits. To quote the European Commission: “Each low-emitting car will be counted as 3.5 vehicles in 2012 and 2013, 2.5 in 2014, 1.5 vehicles in 2015 and then 1 vehicle from 2016 onwards. This approach will help manufacturers further reduce the average emissions of their new car fleet.”

So far electric cars are merely a gimmick; some will be bought for illogical reasons. They are far more expensive, the batteries will not last as long as the car’s lifecycle and take hours to reload, added to which the distance one can cover remains a fraction of that covered with a petrol or diesel engine. Instead, one must ask whether it would not be better for the German government to stand up for reasonable regulations. VDA President Matthias Wissmann

Outspoken lobbyist for the German car industry and a man with a long political background in traffic and transport, Matthias Wissmann.

Outspoken lobbyist for the German car industry and a man with a long political background in traffic and transport, Matthias Wissmann.

at any rate has dampened the great expectations for e-mobility in Germany. “If we reach the goal of one million electric vehicles on German streets one or two years later, that is not a problem. What is really important is that the German car industry remains in the lead regarding technological innovations and market share.” The President of the German Association of the Automotive Industry wrote a letter to the German Chancellor a few weeks ago asking her to vehemently oppose CO2 regulations that would be nails in the German car industry’s coffin.

Outrageously Different: The “BMWi Way” set to hit the road

BMW claims to have found a Columbus’ egg. With the motto “Born electric” the Bavarian premium brand is set to revolutionise the future of mobility once again. Its Columbus’ egg being an innovative lightweight and drive train concept. The BMWi range of cars is to consist both of fully electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids. The Bavarian optimism as regards the electrification of the powertrain is not shared by the majority of the OEMs. And yet the BMWi representatives are convinced that their concept which they started as “Project i” back in 2007 and have since pursued in secrecy will prove a sustainable success.

"Born electric" - BMW believe in the success of their i models.

“Born electric” – BMW believe in the success of their i models.

The brains behind BMWi claim to have re-invented the car again, having reshaped it from scratch. The decisive factor for their electric models is the use of Carbon Fibre Composite materials with the use of which BMW endeavours to achieve a reduction of weight by 50 per cent compared to steel, plus a superior stiffness and good crash behaviour. The BMW i3 as fully electric car in the small segment will hit the road before the end of the year. The sportscar i8 will soon follow as a plug-in hybrid. “We have made no compromises with these purpose-built cars that support our emission free range of models. They represent two extreme poles in our otherwise classical offer of cars”, explains Hildegard Wortmann from Product Management and Aftersales. BMW CEO Norbert Reithofer adds: “It is an even bigger step than that from the carriage to the car.” In other words, BMW is breaking the rules of conventional car production. BMW wants a revolution, and somewhat confusingly calls it “i”, because it has nothing to do with i phone or i pad. Except that it might appeal exactly to that generation, which could be called generation “i”, as in “i” for innovation. Or …

“i” for Iconic Change under the name of sustainability?

“You say you want a revolution – Well, you know – We all want to change the world. You tell me that it’s evolution – Well, you know – We all want to change the world. You say you got a real solution – Well, you know – We’d all love to see the plan. You ask me for a contribution – Well, you know – We’re doing what we can.” With “Born electric” BMW might turn out to be as revolutionary as the Beatles in the 1960ies, with their new hairstyles and quite revolutionary songs and ideas. As in the Beatles song “Revolution” the car manufacturer has a “real solution” with which it wants to change the world.

The Beatles and BMW: Revolutionaries of their time?

The Beatles and BMW: Revolutionaries of their time?

The Bavarians are not only building entirely new cars, where an aluminium chassis sits on a carbon body and introduces new freedoms in design, but they deliver a 360 degree carefree package with it, or at least intend to do so. They call it “the BMW i 360-degree package for customer-friendly, (easy and convenient), electric mobility.” As BMW explains: “Through the 360° Electric programme, BMW i will offer solutions for all aspects of electric mobility. Under this banner it has entered numerous partnerships which will support the overriding goal of ensuring that, by the launch date, the charging options for the BMW i3 and BMW i8 will include customer-friendly, sustainable and convenient solutions for home garage charging.” Needless to say, all these partnerships are centred on the concept of sustainability.

This manufacturer of sporty premium cars is convinced of its opportunity to change public perception, to lead the premium segment and to develop a sustainable business. Quite a sizable commitment! But of course BMW is relying on governmental support as regards further tax reductions for the e-cars and a speedy installation of the necessary infrastructure. And who is the clientèle for the BMW i cars? No doubt, they will attract the so-called Lohas, i.e. that section of society that follows a lifestyle of health and sustainability. Most importantly for BMW though, the Lohas must be sufficiently wealthy.

Susanne Roeder

©roe

Purely electric. The Californian pioneer Tesla and its Model S.

Purely electric. The Californian pioneer Tesla and its Model S.

PS: As you may have noticed the issue is highly controversial. Huffington Post displays an opposing view from Bill Destler who strongly believes in e-mobility. He takes the view that “electric cars are our future”:

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/bill-destler/electric-cars_b_1929481.html

And for the state of affairs as regards the regulations by the European Commission, take a look at:

http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/transport/vehicles/cars/index_en.htm

You may also like to follow up the discussion re the BMW i revolution on LinkedIn: Rise of the BMW i3 | LinkedIn

http://www.linkedin.com/groupAnswers?viewQuestionAndAnswers=&discussionID=261981649&gid=915097&commentID=153631137&trk=view_disc&fromEmail=&ut=0TAMe2FJmkMlQ1